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      1. 科普中國 提交流言

        在地震災區的惡劣環境下可用渾水泡面

        流言8月4日,中國人民廣播電臺中國之聲首發“云南魯甸震中龍頭山鎮食品匱乏救援人員用渾水煮面”的配圖。一時引發各種爭議。圖說里這樣寫道:在震中龍頭山鎮的龍泉中學,因為食物匱乏,只能吃外面輸送進來的泡面,地下水和自來水因為地震水質渾濁,潔水有限優先供應傷員,救援人員只能用渾水泡面、做飯。



        圖片來源:weibo.com/cnrzgzs
        展開

        真相經查證,這有可能是一條假新聞,沒有發現救災過程中出現相關情況。災后無論對于救災人員和當地居民,飲水安全都是不容忽視的問題,不要讓我們一時的疏忽帶來更大的損傷。

        論證

        被證實是假新聞

        8月5日晚,《環球時報》稱,記者向前方救災部隊求證時得知這是一則假新聞。

        一名前方救災部隊的負責人向《環球時報》記者確認,經查證,沒有發現救災過程中出現相關情況。該負責人還說,網傳圖片中用如此渾濁的水泡方便面明顯不符合常理,“不管誰煮開水也會選盡量澄清的水源”。他表示,前方救災部隊攜帶有凈水設備,不會胡亂飲用不衛生的水。他呼吁,前方部隊正在忘己的全力救災,請后方不要誤信這種別有用心的圖片,以免傷害救災部隊的士氣。 [1]

        新聞是假,但是震后災區的水資源以及其他衛生問題確實不容忽視。那么在這種非常條件下,泥水煮泡面,吃了會不會有什么危害?而諸如臺風、颶風、暴雨、洪水、地震等重大自然災害除了造成房屋倒塌,人員傷亡外,絕大多數情況下還可能造成飲用水供應系統的破壞,在絕大多數下,飲用水安全是重要的公共衛生問題之一。為什么自然災害會造成嚴重的水污染?污染后的水會對人體造成哪些影響?面對這些污水我們應該怎么辦呢?


        重大自然災害易造成嚴重的水污染

        通常來說,自然災害發生后,建筑物大面積倒塌、集中式供水中斷、供水設施遭受嚴重破壞,分散式給水和農村給水也都受到不同程度的破壞,如水管淤砂、井管錯裂等,易給供水造成極大困難。災害過后還會導致各類化工廠、化學品倉庫、化工商店、農資商店、家庭存放的農藥等暴露在環境中,容易污染水源。同時,地震等造成地下水位改變,使深井水受淺層水或地面水滲透的影響,造成污染。水源附近有罹難者遺體時,也可能會影響水源。水源周圍的衛生管理不善,有污水、垃圾、糞便時,易于造成水源污染。2005年卡特里娜颶風使美國佛羅里達州全面癱瘓,由于大水沖毀了當地的許多建筑物化工廠,致使水體污染嚴重,救援人員的人身安全和飲水保障受到了嚴重威脅。1998年我國抗洪救災中,飲用水幾乎全部靠瓶裝純凈水供應。

        此外,通過水傳播致病微生物也可導致水污染,并引起傳染病的爆發流行。1991年拉丁美洲和加勒比海地區各國由于飲用水未徹底消毒,霍亂傳播流行,造成59萬人發病,5000多人死亡,據世界衛生組織和聯合國兒童基金會聯合發表的1份報告稱 “因缺乏潔凈水造成的腹瀉病例每年多達40億起,造成220萬人死亡,其中大部分是5歲以下的兒童”。我國第一次生活飲用水水質和水性疾病調查(1983年)結果表明,水源性傷寒爆發屢有發生,1958年以來幾乎每年均有,僅1980-1983年就發生180起。傳染性肝炎僅1981年就發生水污染致爆發流行141起,上海肝炎大流行雖是毛蚶引起,但與水污染密切相關。

        污水會導致哪些疾病的傳播:

        自然災害通常會引起生活飲用水水質的改變,包括飲水中的微生物、化學物、放射性核素等含量的改變,這些改變超過人體承受能力時,會引起水源性疾病的發生。通常情況下,飲用了被污染水的可能對人體產生如下影響:

        細菌性腸道傳染病

        我們經常聽到一句話叫做“災后有大疫”,意思是說在自然災害后,飲水緊缺的情況下,如果人們飲用雨水、坑水、池塘水、河水等不安全的水,有導致腸道傳染病流行傳播的危險。而且特別容易導致水源性腸道傳染病的爆發。而這些傷寒、副傷寒、霍亂、甲肝、戊肝等是容易通過水源傳播的細菌性腸道傳染病。

        寄生蟲病

        如血吸蟲等水源性寄生蟲是通過水傳播的,災后如果人接觸了有寄生蟲污染的水,寄生蟲會鉆入人體或被動地被吞入人體而使人染病,因此寄生蟲病也是飲用被污染的水造成的常見疾病。

        化學物質

        水中一旦被化學物質(重金屬等)污染會產生急性的中毒,即使含量較低也不排除造成慢性損傷的可能。我國有些地區的氟斑牙就是因為長期飲用高氟水所導致的。

        面對這些污水該怎么辦?

        當地震等自然災害發生后,由于房屋毀損、道路破壞導致相關水質檢測部門工作能力喪失,不能及時地對當地飲用水進行檢測。這是飲水水質衛生安全面臨的一個最大的困難。解決此難題最有效的方法是現場快速檢測。但我國目前尚無應急狀態下相應的飲用水評價標準和體系,若依照國家《生活飲用水衛生標準》來檢測和評價,不僅貽誤時間,而且由于較多的人口和動物使用較少的水源,污染危險性隨之增加,因此在災害后的面對污水如何處理這一問題就顯得十分重要。

        以下建議來自北京市豐臺區疾病預防控制中心,其原則基本適用于絕大部分的災后水源處理:
        1. 不喝生水,只喝開水或符合衛生標準的瓶裝水、桶裝水。災后飲用水容易被污染,煮沸消毒最簡便有效。
        2. 不喝渾水。震后水質變渾,渾濁度大、污染嚴重的水,必須先加明礬澄清才能飲用。對于渾濁水,取水裝入缸(桶)中,可選用明礬、硫酸鋁、三氯化鐵、堿氏氯化鋁等混凝劑,按使用要求的比例加入水中,充分攪勻,將水中的泥沙或有機物混凝,靜置沉淀約1小時取出上面澄清液倒入另外缸(桶)進行消毒才能飲用。
        3. 飲水消毒。對取自地下井水、河水、湖水、塘水的臨時飲用水,一定要進行消毒,建議首選含氯消毒劑,可以選擇其他符合國家標準或規范的消毒劑。
        4. 消毒藥品選擇與儲存。消毒藥品如漂白粉、漂白精片要在避光、干燥、通風的環境中保存,且要注意保存及使用安全。裝水的缸、桶、鍋、盆等貯水容器保持清潔,而且要經常倒空清洗。
        5. 貯水容器應定期清洗消毒,以清除貯水容器中的沉淀物,殺滅微生物,防止微生物生長繁殖。將貯水容器洗刷后,按照1.25L清水(約一大桶可樂瓶的水量)加入1片漂白粉精片(有效氯含量為250mg/片)的比例配制消毒液,待消毒片融化混勻后浸泡貯水容器,作用10分鐘后用大量清水洗凈至沒有消毒液的味道再使用。
        6. 重新啟用的地下水井必須進行清掏、沖洗與消毒。先將水井周圍污物清除,將水井抽干,清除污泥,用清水沖洗井壁、井底,再抽盡污水。待水井自然滲水到正常水位后,進行加氯消毒。
        7. 當發生飲水污染時,立即停止飲用,并立即上報村委會、鄉、鎮政府等有關部門,采取相應措施。

        總之,任何自然災害的發生都會給我們帶來巨大的損失,災后無論對于救災人員和當地居民,飲水安全都是不容忽視的問題,不要讓我們一時的疏忽帶來更大的損傷。



        參考資料:

        [1] http://edu.gmw.cn/2014-08/06/content_12389430.htm
        [2] Niskar AS, Environmental data assessment for use in public health surveillance[J].Environ Healt,2007,70(4):43-45.
        [3] 李君文等,突發公共衛生事件下的飲水安全[J].癌變畸變突變,2007(3).
        [4] Pontius FW. Update on USEPA’s drinking water regulations[J].JAWWA,2003,95(3):57~68.
        [5] States S.Utility-based analytical methods to ensure public water supply security[J].JAWWA,2003.95(4):103—115.
        [6] 康來儀,上海地區1988年春甲型肝炎爆發流行的流行病學調查[J].中華流行病學雜志,1989,7(1):26-29.
        [7] 《地震災區飲用水安全保障應急技術方案》( 2008 年 第 14 號)
        [8] 《中國防災減災的主要手段、成就和對策》
        [9] 世界衛生組織.飲用水水質準則(第三版)2005.
        [10] 李明川,等.成都市地震災害后飲水衛生安全的應急措施[J].預防醫學情報雜志,2008.(12)24.933-34.
        內容來源:災后水源,該如何正確使用? 粉條er,果殼網科學人主題站



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        • 匿名用戶 2015-08-12 17:03
          很多軍隊的后勤都會配備逆滲透之類的移動凈水系統,供各種環境惡劣的場合就地取污水凈化使用的。
        • 匿名用戶 2014-09-22 22:12
          為了辟謠而辟謠
        • 匿名用戶 2014-08-24 22:59
          事情是真實發生的,環球時報的新聞報道不實。只是“在地震災區的惡劣環境下可用渾水泡面”顯然不對。但是不對不代表沒有發生。
        • 匿名用戶 2014-08-24 22:59
          事情是真實發生的,環球時報的新聞報道不實。只是“在地震災區的惡劣環境下可用渾水泡面”顯然不對。但是不對不代表沒有發生。
        • 匿名用戶 2014-08-21 10:42
          這是真事啊,環球已經道歉了~
        • 匿名用戶 2014-08-16 23:32
          我小時候家里有袋裝泡面,我經常把里面的面餅當干脆面吃,也沒什么事。方便面一定要泡著才能吃嗎?
        • 匿名用戶 2014-08-15 22:04
          人日還發過這條新聞呢

        共同編輯: 岡部紅莉棲

        最后更新:2014-10-23 16:27

        分類: 自然環境> 災難     標簽:環境/泡面/衛生/飲水/災區

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